When working with Amazon EC2 instances, you've probably experienced the need to change the default hostname to something more meaningful than "ip-10-205-14-33" for instance. While simply issuing a
hostname command will do the trick, it requires login into the machine. If you also need to properly define the fqdn (fully qualified domain name) of the machine, it requires a modification of the
/etc/hosts file as well or more if you've setup a DNS server.
Setting the desired hostname and fqdn for the instance can be critical if you're automating deployment with Chef and expect to retrieve those values later on. A simple approach is to pass user data when creating the instance and use a script to read it and populate the hostname.
Create a new instance from your favorite AMI. Save this script as
# Replace this with your domain DOMAIN=your-domain.com
</span>/usr/bin/curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data<span class="sb">
</span><span class="nb">echo</span> <span class="nv">$USER_DATA</span><span class="sb">
</span>/usr/bin/curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-ipv4<span class="sb">
# Set the host name hostname $HOSTNAME echo $HOSTNAME > /etc/hostname
# Add fqdn to hosts file cat<<EOF > /etc/hosts
This file is automatically genreated by ec2-hostname script
127.0.0.1 localhost $IPV4 $HOSTNAME.$DOMAIN $HOSTNAME
The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback fe00::0 ip6-localnet ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix ff02::1 ip6-allnodes ff02::2 ip6-allrouters ff02::3 ip6-allhosts EOF
Mark it as executable
$ chmod o+x ec2-hostanme.sh
and add the following line to
/etc/rc.local so that it runs every time the instance restart
Save this instance as a new AMI (easiest to do from the AWS console).
Next time you want to create a new instance, pass the desired hostname in the
ec2-run-instances ami-99f510f1 --user-data "YOUR-HOSTNAME" \ --instance-type t1.micro --group default --region us-east-1 \ --key YOUR-KEY
This technique was adapted from a more comprehensive example published by Marius Ducea.